Psychology is a very broad field and within that, there are many subdiivisions that are aimed at in-depth understanding of one particular aspect.
Some of the common psychologists are described below with what they do and help out with.
Counsellor/therapists: This includes counsellors who have a general sort of background and can help to some extent with each type of issue, or this may also include specialists like deaddiction counsellor etc.
These professionals have a background in human development or psychology followed by training in counselling.
They may practice independently or as part of an organization or collective.
School and college counsellors: Thankfully, these days many schools have at least one counsellor.
These counsellors help out children with academic difficulties and also help them through personal difficulties and in detection and awareness of bullying and emotional issues.
College counsellors also play a similar role and may also help the student deal with heartbreak and ragging related issues
Career counsellors: Often school and college counsellors also have training for career counsellors.
However, there are also specialized career counsellors who help the student to find out his aptitude and abilities and keeping that in mind, help them to find a suitable career.
Counseling, aptitude testing and wide knowledge of colleges, universities and courses offered is their forte.
Industrial psychologists: These psychologists work either in the HR department, in personnel management or with employee assistance programs as corporate trainers.
They help with emotional health and stress reduction of employees as well as planning how appraisals, layoffs and selections should happen.
Clinical psychologists: They have an M.Phil. or a Ph.D. in clinical psychology and help mainly with psychiatric disorders ranging from depression or stress right up to OCD and schizophrenia.
They are licensed to do clinical testing and generate reports of the same.
Along with a psychiatrist or independently, they help in changing thought and behaviour patterns that may be maintaining a psychological disorder.
Marriage and family therapists: They work with families on issues or marriage, separation or child-related issues.
Broken or dysfunctional families may need therapy for the family as a whole, because if the system is not functioning properly, it affects all members and it is not any one person’s fault.
The whole system needs to be adapted to change. MFT do a special certificate post their masters in counselling or clinical psychology.
Art Therapists: Art therapy is picking up in India, especially for special groups like children with hyperactivity or women undergoing domestic violence.
Art therapists help to channel our energies, heal and bring about change with the use of art.
Art is a form of expression in which words are mostly not required and therefore, it helps to tap the unconscious and repressed emotions.
Couple therapists: There are also dedicated couples therapists apart from the MFT who work specifically with couples who find it hard to get together and resolve problems on their own.
This may include couples who have not yet moved in together too, because MFT looks at couples married and living in together and also focuses on other people like in-laws, whereas couples’ therapy is about the communication skills of the couple only.
Rehabilitation psychologists: They need to have an M Phil. In Rehabilitation psychology or 5 years of work experience in the field before they can practice as rehabilitation psychologists.
Typically, they help people with any sort of psychological or development issue to get rehabilitated back in life.
They may help children with low IQ and other concerns as well adults, post-hospitalization for psychiatric issues.
Applied Behaviour Analysts: This is a very small and specific area, but ABA help children with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders to communicate well and learn other skills.
These children may not integrate easily into the mainstream and ABA are needed to help them express themselves properly and have a healthy emotional life.